"My lab has found that people are more likely to respond with disgust¡ªand to dehumanize¡ªsuch Nike Free Run 3 UK
extreme out-groups when they anticipate that compassion for those groups will be emotionally overwhelming and exhausting," says Daryl Cameron, a psychologist at the University of Iowa Can we tame xenophobia? If xenophobia has such deep evolutionary and psychological roots, what explains Ms. Wenger's fourth-grade class, which rallied to support their friend Rodrigo after he was sent back to Mexico?
Both liberals and conservatives have Cheap Nike Free Run UK
claimed that the most important fact of the Berkeley case is that they are children. For some liberal commentators, Wenger's class stands as proof that children are born without prejudice, and that hate must be taught. Conservatives have a different take, suggesting that the embrace of an undocumented immigrant in their midst is just the result of an inexperienced, childish perspective. "That's what I want a bunch of Nike Free Womens Shoes
fourth graders making legislation," wrote one commentator on the right-wing site newsbuster.com. "MACARONI AND CHEESE EVERY DAY FOR SUPPER!!!!"
Later studies by Thomas Pettigrew and Linda Tropp elaborated on this insight. In addition Women Nike Free Run 2 UK
to having common goals, they found kids need to be treated as equals and to have non-competitive interactions with one another. That last bit¡ªcooperation over competition¡ªturns out to be rather important. "In our research, we talk about warmth and competence dimensions," Fiske says.
"And the warmth dimension is completely predicted by cooperative or Cheap Nike Free Running Shoes UK
competitive intent." As Mendoza-Denton says, "There are ways to conceptualize immigration, not on a deficit model, but as bringing in skills and resources that grow the economy, potentially growing the pool of what goes around." The fourth graders of Berkeley are different in another way from the citizens of Murrieta: the Nike Free UK
values of the people leading their communities.
In Murrieta, the town's mayor led the anti-immigrant protests. In Berkeley, teachers and Nike Air Max 2013 Mens UK
administrators never lose an opportunity to talk about the value of diversity. As the district's website says, "Berkeley Unified School District believes that diversity in our student population enriches the educational experiences of students."
The leadership's framing emphasizes that newcomers Air Max Shoes Sale
strengthen the community with new ideas and energy, as opposed to threatening its integrity."The views and messages from authorities really matter," Mendoza-Denton says. "Because difficult intergroup situations are ambiguous¡ªand in ambiguous situations people look to leaders to set the tone. That's got to be really consistent across different levels of leadership." As part of that leadership, people need to hear solutions, Nike Air Max Shoes UK
to mitigate the fear that compassion will lead to feeling overwhelmed.
That may be the final difference between the fourth graders of Berkeley and Air Max 2013 UK Sale
the protesters of Murrieta: They had a cause that was about someone else, not themselves. "It isn't fair," one classmate told the website Berkeleyside. "All of his classmates and all of his friends miss him and he misses Berkeley."
In contrast, the slogans of Murrieta¡ªe.g., "We have no money Cheap Nike Air Max Shoes UK
for you"¡ªwere uniformly negative and self-centered. Thus the prescription for increasing empathy with immigrants contains a one-two punch: One punch is emotional and social, to overcome innate fear of outsiders; the other is cognitive and educational, to correct for irrational fears like the one of disease. "If you're talking about cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression, there's a very strong education Air Max 1 Shoes UK
component where you try to persuade the person to empirically examine their own beliefs," says Mendoza-Denton.